Privacy & Data Protection

On 18 July 2022, the United Kingdom (UK) government set out its new proposals for regulating the use of artificial intelligence (AI) technologies while promoting innovation, boosting public trust, and protecting data. The proposals reflect a less centralised and more risk-based approach than in the EU’s draft AI Act.

The proposals coincide with the introduction to Parliament of the Data Protection and Digital Information Bill, which includes measures to use AI responsibly while reducing compliance burdens on businesses to boost the economy.

Continue Reading UK government announces its proposals for regulating AI

Background

On 1 August 2022, the Court of Justice of the European Union (“CJEU”) issued a decision (“Decision”) clarifying how the indirect disclosure of sexual orientation data is protected as special category data under Article 9 of the EU General Data Protection Regulation (“GDPR”). “Special Category Data” is defined within Article 9(1) of the GDPR and includes (for example) a data subject’s racial or ethnic origin or data concerning a natural person’s sex life or sexual orientation. The processing of such sensitive personal data is expressly prohibited, unless the processing is exempted from the prohibition in the sense of Article 9(2) GDPR.

Continue Reading CJEU rules on interpretation of EU GDPR special categories of data

On 4 May 2022, the Department for Digital, Culture, Media and Sport (DCMS) launched a consultation (available here) to request views from the tech industry on potential interventions to enhance security and privacy requirements for firms running app stores and developers making apps.

Continue Reading Department for Digital, Culture, Media and Sport launches consultation on app security

Following a consultation in January 2021, the European Data Protection Board (EDPB) has published its finalised guidelines on examples of personal data breaches and whether they are notifiable. These guidelines supplement previous guidance on personal data breach notification: the Opinion on Personal Data Breach Notification (Opinion 03/2014) and the general Guidelines on Personal Data Breach Notification under the GDPR (WP 250), both issued by the EDPB’s predecessor, the Article 29 Working Party.

The new guidelines offer welcome clarification on when notifications are required given that some data protection authorities and commentators have acknowledged over-reporting.

In this article we recap on the key takeaways from the finalised guidelines, focussing on key changes made since the January 2021 consultation, and exploring the challenges of managing data breach notifications in multiple jurisdictions.

Continue Reading New guidelines on personal data breach notifications

The Information Commissioner’s Office (ICO) and the Alan Turing Institute have recently released an interim report (Report) outlining their approach to best practices in explaining artificial intelligence (AI) to users. The Report is of particular relevance to operators of AI systems who may be considering their duties under the General Data Protection Regulation 2016/679 (GDPR).

The UK Jurisdiction Taskforce (UKJT) recently published a consultation paper requesting submissions from stakeholders working with, or interested in, cryptoassets, distributed ledger technology (DLT) and smart contracts. Submissions will inform a legal statement by UKJT which will aim to settle questions on the legal status of cryptoassets and smart contracts. UKJT is drawn from industry,

The Council of Europe Commissioner for Human Rights has recently published recommendations for improving compliance with human rights regulations by parties developing, deploying or implementing artificial intelligence (AI).

The recommendations are addressed to Member States. The principles concern stakeholders who significantly influence the development and implementation of an AI system.

The Commissioner has focussed on 10 key areas of action:

    1. Human rights impact assessment (HRIA) – Member States should establish a legal framework for carrying out HRIAs. HRIAs should be implemented in a similar way to other impact assessments, such as data protection impact assessments under GDPR. HRIAs should review AI systems in order to discover, measure and/or map human rights impacts and risks. Public bodies should not procure AI systems from providers that do not facilitate the carrying out of or publication of HRIAs.
    2. Member States public consultations – Member States should allow for public consultations at various stages of engaging with an AI system, and at a minimum at the procurement and HRIA stages. Such consultations would require the publication of key details of AI systems, including details of the operation, function and potential or measured impacts of the AI system.
    3. Human rights standards in the private sector – Member States should clearly set out the expectation that all AI actors should “know and show” their compliance with human rights principles. This includes participating in transparent human rights due diligence processes that may identify the human rights risks of their AI systems.
    4. Information and transparency – Individuals subject to decision making by AI systems should be notified of this and have the option of recourse to a professional without delay. No AI system should be so complex that it does not allow for human review and scrutiny.
    5. Independent oversight – Member States should establish a legislative framework for independent and effective oversight over the human rights compliance of AI systems. Independent bodies should investigate compliance, handle complaints from affected individuals and carry out periodic reviews of the development of AI system capabilities.
      Continue Reading Council of Europe publish recommendations for the regulation of AI to protect human rights

The Centre for Data Ethics and Innovation (CDEI) is inviting submissions to help inform its review of online targeting and bias in algorithmic decision making.

Online targeting

Online targeting refers to providing individuals with relevant and engaging content, products, and services. Typically users experience targeting in the form of online advertising or personalised social media

The European Data Protection Board (EDPB) has published a report (Report) assessing the implementation and enforcement of the General Data Protection Regulation (EU) 2016/679 (GDPR). The Report focusses on how the cooperation and consistency mechanisms are being used by EU supervisory authorities (SAs).

Cooperation mechanism

Where cases involve cross-border processing, SAs cooperate through:

  • Mutual assistance;

The Information Commissioner’s Office (ICO) is inviting organisations to help develop a framework for future auditing of artificial intelligence (AI).

A team from the ICO’s Technology Policy and Innovation Directorate will develop the framework. The framework is intended to help regulators ensure AI applications are transparent, fair and appropriately risk assessed.

As well as the invitation, the ICO has established a blog site where it will provide updates on its thinking about development of the framework.


Continue Reading Involved in AI? The ICO wants to hear from you.